Musicology (Musicología) – true to the principles set by its initiators – includes in this issue papers and contributions that concern Greek art music, Byzantine and folk tradition, as well as topics related with musicology worldwide. A large part of the texts published concern basic issues of comparative musicology, with an emphasis on problems of comparison between oriental and western musical tradition. In addition, two of these papers concern certain matters about harmonizing folk songs. This issue is essential for the discussion concerning the aesthetics of music in those countries, where folk music is not based on the western major and minor scale system. It is also directly related with the emergence of the so-called National Musical Schools, with the emergence of personal musical creation in these countries and – consequently – with the way each composer elaborated the potential and particularities that occur in folk tunes.Finally, in this issue appears a text written by Schumann. In this text the truth of endless creative activity can be seen behind the romantic ideology about the unity between morality, art and life.